Ads 468x60px

Czech Republic - Home of the Boii

Location of  Czech Republic  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

The Czech Republic, short structure Česko Czech elocution, is a landlocked nation in Central Europe. The nation is outskirted by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the north. Its capital and greatest city, with 1.3 million tenants, is Prague. The Czech Republic incorporates the chronicled regions of Bohemia and Moravia and a little part of Silesia.

The Czech state, once in the past regarded as Bohemia, was shaped in the late 9th century as a modest duchy around Prague, around then under the strength of the compelling Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the middle of force was exchanged from Moravia to Bohemia, under the Přemyslids. Since 1002 it was formally distinguished as a major aspect of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1212 the duchy was raised to a kingdom and throughout the principle of Přemyslid dukes/kings and their successors, the Luxembourgs, the nation arrived at its most amazing regional degree (13th–14th century). Throughout the Hussite wars the kingdom confronted investment embargoes and campaigns from from everywhere. Taking after the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Kingdom of Bohemia was steadily mixed into the Habsburg government as one of its three chief parts, close by the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) lost in the Battle of White Mountain, expedited the further centralization of the government incorporating constrained recatholization and Germanization. With the disintegration of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian kingdom ended up being part of the Austrian Empire. In the 19th century the Czech terrains came to be the streamlined powerhouse of the government and the center of the Republic of Czechoslovakia which was framed in 1918, emulating the cave in of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the main popular government in centermost and eastern Europe.

Cyprus - Land of Passion

Cyprus, formally the Republic of Cyprus, is an Eurasian island nation in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third greatest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of its most ubiquitous voyager ends of the line. A propelled elevated-pay economy with an extremely towering Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus was an organizing part of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.

The soonest known human movement on the island goes back to around the 10th thousand years BC. Archaeological stays from this period incorporate the decently-protected Neolithic village of Khirokitia, which has been announced a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, as well as the Tombs of the Kings. Cyprus is home to a percentage of the eldest water wells in the planet, and is the locale of the soonest known illustration of catlike training. At a vital area in the Middle East,Cyprus has been involved by some major forces, incorporating the domains of the Hittites, Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Rashiduns, Umayyads, Lusignans, Venetians and Ottomans. Settled by Mycenean Greeks in the 2nd thousand years BC, the island moreover encountered long times of Greek run under the Ptolemies and the Byzantines. In 333 B.C., Alexander of Macedon vanquished the island from the Persians. The Ottoman Empire prevailed over the island in 1571 and it stayed under Ottoman control for over three centuries. It was set under British organization in 1878 until it was conceded autonomy in 1960, coming to be a part of the Commonwealth the taking after year.

Cuba - The Land of Miracles

Political map of the Caribbean region with Cuba in red. An inset shows a world map with the main map's edges outlined.

The Republic of Cuba is an island country in the Caribbean. The country of Cuba comprises of the prevailing island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and a few archipelagos. Havana is the greatest city in Cuba and the nation's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second greatest city. To the north of Cuba falsehoods the United States and the Bahamas, Mexico is to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are to the south, and Haiti and the Dominican Republic are to the southeast.

In 1492, Christopher Columbus recognized and asserted the island now possessed by Cuba, for the Kingdom of Spain. Cuba remained domain of Spain until the Spanish–American War finished in 1898, and progressed formal freedom from the U.S. in 1902. Between 1953 and 1959 the Cuban Revolution happened, uprooting the autocracy of Fulgencio Batista. An elective fascism headed by Fidel Castro was later established.

Cuba is home to over 11 million individuals and is the most crowded island country in the Caribbean, and also the greatest by zone. Its individuals, society, and traditions draw from assorted sources, for example the native Taíno and Ciboney individuals, the time of Spanish pioneerism, the presentation of African slaves and its vicinity to the United States.

Cuba has a 99.8% ability rate, a baby passing rate lower than some improved nations, and a normal future of 77.64. In 2006, Cuba was the main country in the planet which met the WWF's definition of reasonable advancement; having a natural foot shaped impression of less than 1.8 hectares for every capita and a Human Development Index of over 0.8 for 2007.

Croatia - Land of Falling Lakes

Location of  Croatia  (green)– in Europe  (peach orange & dark grey)– in the European Union  (peach orange)  —  [Legend]
Croatia, authoritatively the Republic of Croatia, is a nation in Central Europeand Southeastern Europe at the junction of the Pannonian Plain, the Balkans, and the Adriatic Sea. Its capital and greatest city is Zagreb. Croatia fringes Slovenia to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the southeast, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast.

The Croats landed in the early 7th century in what today is Croatia. They formed the state into two dukedoms. The predominant ruler, King Tomislav was delegated in AD 925 and Croatia was hoisted into the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia held its power for just about two centuries, arriving at its top throughout the standard of Kings Peter Krešimir IV and Demetrius Zvonimir. Croatia dropped in an union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, the Croatian Parliament chose Ferdinand from the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, Croatia was incorporated in the fleeting State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs that pronounced freedom from Austria–Hungary and co-organized the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. An autonomous Croatian state quickly existed throughout World War II. After World War II, Croatia ended up being an organizing part of the Second Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia announced autonomy and came to be a sovereign state.

Croatia is a part of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization and CEFTA. The nation is an appointee for enrollment in the European Union, which it is needed to join in 2013 and is an organizing part of the Union for the Mediterranean. Croatia is arranged as a developing and improving economy by the International Monetary Fund and a heightened earnings economy by the World Bank.

Côte d'Ivoire - Land of Hopes

Location of  Ivory Coast  (dark blue)– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)– in the African Union  (light blue)
The Republic of Côte d'Ivoire is a nation in West Africa. It is regularly known in English as Ivory Coast. It has a range of 322,462 square kilometres (124,503 sq mi), and outskirts the nations Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana; its southern limit is along the Gulf of Guinea. The nation's citizenry was 15,366,672 in 1998 and was assessed to be 20,617,068 in 2009. Côte d'Ivoire's first national evaluation in 1975 checked 6.7 million occupants.

Before its colonization by Europeans, Côte d'Ivoire was home to some states, incorporating Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. There were two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, which endeavored to hold their divided personality through the French pioneer period and after Côte d'Ivoire's freedom. A 1843–1844 settlement made Côte d'Ivoire a "protectorate" of France and in 1893, it came to be a French province as a component of the European scramble for Africa.

Côte d'Ivoire ended up being autonomous on 7 August 1960. From 1960 to 1993, the nation was advanced by Félix Houphouët-Boigny. It supported close political and investment affiliation with its West African neighbours, while in the meantime upholding close ties to the West, in particular to France. Since the finish of Houphouët-Boigny's principle, Côte d'Ivoire has encountered one rebellion, in 1999, and a common war, which softened out up 2002. A political assention between the administration and the dissidents carried a come back to peace. Côte d'Ivoire is a republic with a solid official power put resources into the President. Its by law capital is Yamoussoukro and the grandest city is the port city of Abidjan. The nation is separated into 19 areas and 81 divisions. It is a part of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, African Union, La Francophonie, Latin Union, Economic Community of West African States and South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone.

Costa Rica - The Land of Pure Life

Costa Rica (i /ˌkoʊstə ˈriːkə/), formally the Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica, is a nation in Central America, outskirted via Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and south and the Caribbean Sea to the east

Costa Rica, which connotes "Rich Coast", sacredly annulled its guard forever in 1949. It is the main Latin American nation incorporated in the record of the planet's 22 more seasoned vote based systems. Costa Rica has unwaveringly been near the top Latin American nations in the Human Development Index, stacked up 62nd in the planet in 2010, and is refered to by the UNDP as one of the nations that has accomplished much higher human growth than different nations at the same livelihood levels. The nation is stacked up third in the planet, and first near the Americas, regarding the 2010 Environmental Performance Index.

In 2007, the Costa Rican legislature advertised plans for Costa Rica to end up being the first carbon-impartial nation by 2021.According to the New Economics Foundation, Costa Rica ranks first in the Happy Planet Index and is the "greenest" nation in the planet.

Cook Islands - Recipe for True Paradise

The Cook Islands is a parliamentary majority rules system in the South Pacific Ocean in unhindered companionship with New Zealand. It contains 15 humble islands whose aggregate area range is 240 square kilometres (92.7 sq mi). The Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), be that as it may, blankets 1,800,000 square kilometres (690,000 sq mi) of ocean.

The Cook Islands' defence and unfamiliar issues are the avocation of New Zealand, in counsel with the Cook Islands. As of late, the Cook Islands have embraced an in an ever widening margin free strange arrangement. Admitting that Cook Islanders are natives of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, which is not given to other New Zealand residents.

The Cook Islands' prevailing people centres are on the island of Rarotonga (14,153 in 2006), where there is a global hangar. There is a much greater residents of Cook Islanders in New Zealand, especially the North Island. In the 2006 enumeration, 58,008 self-recognized as being of ethnic Cook Islands Māori descent.

With around 100,000 guests going to the islands in the 2010–11 monetary year, tourism is the nation's essential industry, and the heading component of the economy, far in advance of seaward keeping money, pearls, and marine and soil grown foods sends out. 

Republic of Congo - Land of Dense Forest

The Republic of the Congo (French: République du Congo; Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó), otherwise called Congo Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Little Congo, or basically the Congo, is a state in Central Africa. It is outskirted by Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (some time ago regarded as Zaire), the Angolan exclave area of Cabinda, and the Gulf of Guinea.

The locale was ruled by Bantu tribes, who incorporated exchange interfaces heading with the Congo River sink. The republic is a past French colony.Upon freedom in 1960, the preceding French locale of Middle Congo came to be the Republic of the Congo. The People's Republic of the Congo was a Marxist-Leninist single-gathering state from 1970 to 1991. Multiparty races have been kept since 1992, admitting that a justly chose legislature was removed in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War. 

Congo (DRC) - Land of Health


The Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: République démocratique du Congo), some time ago Zaire, is a state found in Central Africa, with a short Atlantic coastline (37 km). It is the third greatest nation in Africa by range after Sudan and Algeria and the twelfth greatest in the planet. With a citizenry of practically 71 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the eighteenth most crowded country in the planet, and the fourth most crowded country in Africa, and the most crowded authoritatively Francophone nation.

So as to recognize it from the neighbouring Republic of the Congo to the west, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is frequently pointed to as DR Congo, DROC, DRC, or RDC (from its French truncation), or is called Congo-Kinshasa after the capital of Kinshasa as opposed to Congo-Brazzaville for its neighbour). It likewise outskirts the Central African Republic and Sudan to the north; Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi in the east; Zambia and Angola to the south; the Atlantic Ocean to the west; and is split from Tanzania by Lake Tanganyika in the east The nation has access to the sea by way of a 40-kilometre (25 mi) stretch of Atlantic coastline at Muanda and the around 9 km wide mouth of the Congo River which opens into the Gulf of Guinea.

Comoros - The Moon Land

The Comoros (i /ˈkɒməroʊz/; Arabic: جزر القمر‎, Ǧuzur al-Qumur/Qamar), authoritatively the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, French: Union des Comores, Arabic: الاتحاد القمري‎ al-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī/Qamarī) is an archipelago island country in the Indian Ocean, spotted off the eastern coastline of Africa, on the northern closure of the Mozambique Channel, between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar. Different nations close to the Comoros are Tanzania to the northwest and the Seychelles to the northeast. The capital is Moroni on Grande Comore.

At 1,862 km2 (719 sq mi) (rejecting Mayotte) the Comoros is the third-most diminutive African country by region. With a people evaluated at 798,000 (prohibiting Mayotte), it is the sixth-most modest African country by residents—even though it has one of the most astounding residents densities in Africa. Its name determines from the Arabic word القمر qamar ("moon"). The archipelago is remarkable for it different society and history, as a country structured at the intersection of numerous human advancements. It is the southernmost part state of the Arab League. Despite the fact that in the challenged island of Mayotte the sole official dialect is French, the "Union of the Comoros" has several official dialects: Comorian, Arabic, and French.

Colombia - Land of the Flowers

Colombia (pron.: /kəˈlʌmbiə/ kə-LUM-biə, or /kəˈlɒmbiə/ kə-LOM-biə), formally the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia), is an unitary lawful republic involving thirty-two divisions. The nation is placed in northwestern South America, flanked to the northwest by Panama; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Colombia is the 26th greatest nation by region and the fourth greatest in South America after Brazil, Argentina and Peru. With over 46 million individuals, Colombia is the 27th greatest nation in the planet by inhabitant total and has the second greatest citizenry of any Spanish-talking nation in the planet, after Mexico. Colombia is a center force, and is the fourth greatest economy in Latin America, and the third greatest in South America. The handling of espresso, blossoms, emeralds, coal, and oil shape the essential division of Colombia's economy. The planet's third grandest bank HSBC has made a viewpoint on the investment viewpoint in 2050 where Colombia is perceived playing a conclusive part in the worldwide economy, specifically in the Americas, as the 25th-greatest planet economy by GDP.

The domain of what is presently Colombia was basically occupied by indigenous individuals incorporating the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish landed in 1499 and launched a time of triumph and colonization when its all said and done making the Viceroyalty of New Granada (including cutting edge Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, north-western Brazil and Panama), with it capital at Bogotá. Independence from Spain was won in 1819, however by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had caved in with the severance of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is currently Colombia and Panama rose as the Republic of New Granada. The new country tried different things with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and afterward the United States of Colombia (1863), when the Republic of Colombia was at last announced in 1886. Panama withdrew in 1903. Colombia was the first sacred administration in South America, and a critical promoter of the Pan American conglomerations, at first with the Congress of Panama and later as originator of the Organization of American States. The Liberal and Conservative gatherings, organized in 1848 and 1849, are two of the most seasoned surviving political gatherings in the Americas.

China - Land of Dragons and Emperors

Area controlled by the People's Republic of China is in dark green.Claimed but uncontrolled regions are in light green.

The People's Republic of China (PRC), usually regarded as China, is the most crowded state in the planet, with over 1.3 billion natives. Placed in East Asia, it is a lone-gathering state administered by the Communist Party of China (CPC). The PRC actions purview over 22 territories, five self-sufficient areas, four straight regulated districts (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two quite independent unique authoritative areas (SARs) – Hong Kong and Macau. Its capital city is Beijing.

At about 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), the PRC is the planet's third-or fourth-greatest nation by sum range, hinging on the definition of what is incorporated in that sum, and the second greatest via land zone. Its scene is various, with woodland steppes and deserts (the Gobi and Taklamakan) in the dry north close Mongolia and Russia's Siberia, and subtropical backwoods in the wet south near Vietnam, Laos, and Burma. The terrain in the west is rough and lifted, with the Himalayas and the Tian Shan mountain ranges shaping China's characteristic fringes with India, Nepal and Central Asia. Interestingly, terrain China's eastern seaboard is level-lying and has a 14,500-kilometre (9,000 mi) long coastline (the 11th longest in the planet), limited on the southeast by the South China Sea and on the east by the East China Sea, past which lie the Taiwan, Korea, and Japan.

Chile - Land of the Poets

Chile is a nation in South America possessing a long, slender beachfront strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It fringes Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. As well as Ecuador, it is one of two nations in South America that don't outskirt Brazil. The Pacific coastline of Chile is 6,435 kilometres (4000 mi).Chilean region incorporates the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas and Easter Island. Chile likewise guarantees around 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, granted that everything cases are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. 

Chad - Dead Heart of Africa


Chad, authoritatively regarded as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. It is circumscribed by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Because of it separation from the ocean and it impressively betray atmosphere, the nation is in some cases pointed to as the "Dead Heart of Africa". 

Central African Republic - Land of Diamonds and Poverty

The Central African Republic (CAR) (French: République centrafricaine, pronounced: [ʁepyblik sɑ̃tʁafʁikɛn], or Centrafrique [sɑ̃tʀafʀik]; Sango Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka), is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It borders Chad in the north, Sudan in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo in the south, and Cameroon in the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 240,000 square miles (623,000 km²), and has an estimated population of about 4.4 million as of 2008. Bangui is the capital city.

Cape Verde - Land of Light

Location of Cape Verde (circled).
The Republic of Cape Verde (i /ˌkeɪp ˈvɜrd/; Portuguese: Cabo Verde, pronounced [ˈkabu ˈveɾd]; Kabuverdianu: Kabu Verd) is an island country, spanning an archipelago of 10 islands located in the central Atlantic Ocean, 570 kilometres off the coast of Western Africa. The islands, covering a combined area of slightly over 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi), are of volcanic origin and while three of them (Sal, Boa Vista and Maio) are fairly flat, sandy and dry, the remaining ones are generally rockier and have more vegetation. Because of the infrequent occurrence of rainfall the overall landscape is not particularly green, despite what the country's name suggests (verde is Portuguese for "green"). The name of the country stems instead from the nearby Cap Vert, on the Senegalese coast.

Canada - The Land of The Maple Tree

Projection of North America with Canada in green 

Canada ( /ˈkænədə/) is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area. Canada's common border with the United States to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.

The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federal state that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth of Nations, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN. With the eighth-highest Human Development Index globally, it has one of the highest standards of living in the world.


Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing the land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area, Canada ranks fourth.

The country lies between latitudes 41° and 84°N, and longitudes 52° and 141°W. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60° and 141°W longitude, but this claim is not universally recognized. The northernmost settlement in Canada (and in the world) is Canadian Forces Station Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—817 kilometres (450 nautical miles, 508 miles) from the North Pole Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada also has the longest coastline in the world: 202,080 kilometres (125,570 mi).

Since the last glacial period Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield. Canada has more lakes than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water.There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. The volcanic eruption of Tseax Cone in 1775 caused a catastrophic disaster, killing 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia; the eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and according to legend of the Nisga'a people, it blocked the flow of the Nass River.

The population density, 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.5 /sq mi), is among the lowest in the world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, situated in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River.

Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary according to the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F) but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills.In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year (more in the north). Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).


The Canada 2006 Census counted a total population of 31,612,897, an increase of 5.4 percent since 2001. Population growth is from immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. About four-fifths of Canada's population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the United States border.A similar proportion live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, the BC Lower Mainland, and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age of the population was 39.5 years.

According to the 2006 census, the largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (32%), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%). There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands encompassing 1,172,790 people.

Canada's Aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and 3.8 percent of Canada's population claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Another 16.2 percent of the population belonged to a non-aboriginal visible minority.The largest visible minority groups in Canada are South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%). Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 percent In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) could be classified as belonging to a visible minority group and less than 1% as aboriginal.As of 2007, almost one in five Canadians (19.8%) were foreign-born. Nearly 60 percent of new immigrants come from Asia (including the Middle East).The leading emigrating countries to Canada were China, Philippines and India.By 2031, one in three Canadians could belong to a visible minority group.

Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world,driven by economic policy and family reunification, and is aiming for between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2011, the same number of immigrants as in recent years.New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas like Toronto and Vancouver.Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees.The country resettles over one in 10 of the world’s refugees.

According to the 2001 census, 77.1 percent of Canadians identify as being Christians; of this, Catholics make up the largest group (43.6% of Canadians). The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (9.5% of Canadians), followed by the Anglicans (6.8%), Baptists (2.4%), Lutherans (2%), and other Christians (4.4%). About 16.5 percent of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, and the remaining 6.3 percent are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which is Islam (2.0%), followed by Judaism (1.1%).

Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education. Each system is similar, while reflecting regional history, culture and geography. The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years, contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent. In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent.


Canada's two official languages are English and French. Official bilingualism is defined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Official Languages Act, and Official Language Regulations; it is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French, and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.

English and French are the first languages of 59.7 and 23.2 percent of the population respectively. Approximately 98 percent of Canadians speak English or French: 57.8% speak English only, 22.1% speak French only, and 17.4% speak both. English and French Official Language Communities, defined by First Official Language Spoken, constitute 73.0 and 23.6 percent of the population respectively.

The Charter of the French Language makes French the official language in Quebec.Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in Ontario, Alberta, and southern Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec. New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population. There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status but is not fully co-official. There are 11 Aboriginal language groups, made up of more than 65 distinct dialects. Of these, only Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway have a large enough population of fluent speakers to be considered viable to survive in the long term. Several aboriginal languages have official status in the Northwest Territories.Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and one of three official languages in the territory.

Over six million people in Canada list a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,012,065 first-language speakers), Italian (455,040), German (450,570), Punjabi (367,505) and Spanish (345,345). and the languages most spoken at home by 68.3 percent and 22.3 percent of the population respectively.

Miss Canada 2012:

Cameroon - Land of Plenty

Location of Cameroon on the globe. 

Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon (French: République du Cameroun), is a country of central and western Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. The country is called "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. The highest point is Mount Cameroon in the southwest, and the largest cities are Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua. Cameroon is home to over 200 different linguistic groups. The country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly makossa and bikutsi, and for its successful national football team. English and French are the official languages.

Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões ("River of Shrimp"), the name from which Cameroon derives. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884.

After World War I, the territory was divided between France and Britain as League of Nations mandates. The Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence but was outlawed by France in the 1950s. It waged war on French and UPC militant forces until 1971. In 1960, the French administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. The southern part of British Cameroons merged with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984.

Compared to other African countries, Cameroon enjoys relatively high political and social stability. This has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, railways, and large petroleum and timber industries. Nevertheless, large numbers of Cameroonians live in poverty as subsistence farmers. Power lies firmly in the hands of the authoritarian president since 1982, Paul Biya, and his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party. The English speaking territories of Cameroon have grown increasingly alienated from the government, and politicians from those regions have called for greater decentralization and even the secession (for example,: the Southern Cameroons National Council) of the former British-governed territories.



At 475,442 square kilometres (183,569 sq mi), Cameroon is the world's 53rd-largest country. It is comparable in size to Papua New Guinea and somewhat larger than the U.S. state of California.The country is located in Central and West Africa on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Cameroon lies between latitudes 1° and 13°N, and longitudes 8° and 17°E.

Tourist literature describes Cameroon as "Africa in miniature" because it exhibits all major climates and vegetation of the continent: coast, desert, mountains, rainforest, and savanna.The country's neighbours are Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south.

Cameroon is divided into five major geographic zones distinguished by dominant physical, climatic, and vegetative features. The coastal plain extends 15 to 150 kilometres (9 to 93 mi) inland from the Gulf of Guinea and has an average elevation of 90 metres (295 ft).Exceedingly hot and humid with a short dry season, this belt is densely forested and includes some of the wettest places on earth, part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests.

The South Cameroon Plateau rises from the coastal plain to an average elevation of 650 metres (2,133 ft). Equatorial rainforest dominates this region, although its alternation between wet and dry seasons makes it is less humid than the coast. This area is part of the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests ecoregion.

An irregular chain of mountains, hills, and plateaus known as the Cameroon range extends from Mount Cameroon on the coast—Cameroon's highest point at 4,095 metres (13,435 ft)almost to Lake Chad at Cameroon's northern border at 13°05'N. This region has a mild climate, particularly on the Western High Plateau, although rainfall is high. Its soils are among Cameroon's most fertile, especially around volcanic Mount Cameroon.Volcanism here has created crater lakes. On 21 August 1986, one of these, Lake Nyos, belched carbon dioxide and killed between 1,700 and 2,000 people.This area has been delineated by the World Wildlife Fund as the Cameroonian Highlands forests ecoregion.

The southern plateau rises northward to the grassy, rugged Adamawa Plateau. This feature stretches from the western mountain area and forms a barrier between the country's north and south. Its average elevation is 1,100 metres (3,609 ft),and its average temperature ranges from 22 °C (71.6 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F) with high rainfall between April and October peaking in July and August.The northern lowland region extends from the edge of the Adamawa to Lake Chad with an average elevation of 300 to 350 metres (984 to 1,148 ft). Its characteristic vegetation is savanna scrub and grass. This is an arid region with sparse rainfall and high median temperatures.

Cameroon has four patterns of drainage. In the south, the principal rivers are the Ntem, Nyong, Sanaga, and Wouri. These flow southwestward or westward directly into the Gulf of Guinea. The Dja and Kadéï drain southeastward into the Congo River. In northern Cameroon, the Bénoué River runs north and west and empties into the Niger. The Logone flows northward into Lake Chad, which Cameroon shares with three neighbouring countries.


2009 UN estimates place Cameroon's population at 19,522,000. The population is young: an estimated 40.9% are under 15, and 96.7% are under 65. The birth rate is estimated at 34.1 births per 1,000 people, the death rate at 12.2.The life expectancy is 53.69 years (52.89 years for males and 54.52 years for females).

Cameroon's population is almost evenly divided between urban and rural dwellers.Population density is highest in the large urban centres, the western highlands, and the northeastern plain. Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua are the largest cities. In contrast, the Adamawa Plateau, southeastern Bénoué depression, and most of the South Cameroon Plateau are sparsely populated.

People from the overpopulated western highlands and the underdeveloped north are moving to the coastal plantation zone and urban centres for employment. Smaller movements are occurring as workers seek employment in lumber mills and plantations in the south and east. Although the national sex ratio is relatively even, these out-migrants are primarily males, which leads to unbalanced ratios in some regions.

Both monogamous and polygamous marriage are practiced, and the average Cameroonian family is large and extended. In the north, women tend to the home, and men herd cattle or work as farmers. In the south, women grow the family's food, and men provide meat and grow cash crops. Cameroonian society is male-dominated, and violence and discrimination against women is common.

Estimates identify anywhere from 230 to 282 different folks and linguistic groups in Cameroon.The Adamawa Plateau broadly bisects these into northern and southern divisions. The northern peoples are Sudanese groups, who live in the central highlands and the northern lowlands, and the Fulani, who are spread throughout northern Cameroon. A small number of Shuwa Arabs live near Lake Chad. Southern Cameroon is inhabited by speakers of Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages. Bantu-speaking groups inhabit the coastal and equatorial zones, while speakers of Semi-Bantu languages live in the Western grassfields. Some 5,000 Pygmies roam the southeastern and coastal rainforests or live in small, roadside settlements. Nigerians, make up the largest group of foreign nationals.

In 2007, Cameroon hosted a total population of refugees and asylum seekers of approximately 97,400. Of these, 49,300 were from the Central African Republic (many driven west by war),41,600 from Chad, and 2,900 from Nigeria. Kidnappings of Cameroonian citizens by Central African bandits have increased since 2005.

The European languages introduced during colonialism have created a linguistic divide between the population who live in the Northwest and Southwest regions and the French-speaking remainder of the country.Both English and French are official languages, although French is by far the most understood language. Cameroonian Pidgin English is the lingua franca in the formerly British-administered territories.A mixture of English, French, and Pidgin called Camfranglais has been gaining popularity in urban centres since the mid-1970s.


Cameroon has a high level of religious freedom and diversity. Christians are concentrated chiefly in the southern and western regions, and Muslims reside in large numbers in every region but are concentrated in the north. There is significant internal migration. There are currently no active Islamic political parties. Large cities have significant populations of both groups, with mosques and churches often located near each other.

People from the North-West and South-West provinces are largely Protestant, and the French speaking regions of the southern and western regions are largely Catholic. Southern ethnic groups predominantly follow Christian or Animist beliefs, or a syncretic combination of the two. People widely believe in witchcraft, and the government outlaws such practices. Suspected witches are often subject to mob violence.

In the northern regions, the locally dominant Fulani ethnic group is mostly Muslim, although some ethnic groups retain native animist beliefs and are called Kirdi ("pagan") by the Fulani. The Bamum ethnic group of the West Region is largely Muslim. Native Traditional religions are practiced in rural areas throughout the country but rarely are practiced publicly in cities, in part because many indigenous religious groups are intrinsically local in character.

Miss Cameroon 2012:


Cambodia - Land of Smiles

Location of  Cambodia  (green)in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Cambodia, formally regarded as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country found in the southern segment of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Its complete landmass is 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 sq mi), flanked via Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.

With a citizenry of over 14.8 million, Cambodia is the 68th most crowded country in the planet. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is honed by pretty nearly 95% of the Cambodian citizenry. The country's minority bunches incorporate Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams and 30 mound tribes. The capital and greatest city is Phnom Penh, the political, budgetary, and customary focus of Cambodia. The kingdom is a legal government with Norodom Sihamoni, a ruler decided on by the Royal Throne Council, as head of state. The head of legislature is Hun Sen, who is right now the longest serving guide in South East Asia and has governed Cambodia for over 25 years.

Cambodia's antiquated name is "Kambuja" (Sanskrit: कंबुज).[9] In 802 AD, Jayavarman II maintained himself ruler checking the starting of the Khmer Empire which thrived for over 600 years and permitting successive lords to rule much of Southeast Asia and collect tremendous power and fortune. The Indianized kingdom constructed momentous temples for example Angkor Wat and expedited the spread of first Hinduism, then Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia. After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, Cambodia was controlled as a vassal between its neighbors until it was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century. Cambodia added on freedom in 1953.

The Vietnam War developed into Cambodia, giving ascent to the Khmer Rouge, which took Phnom Penh in 1975. Cambodia reemerged numerous years later inside a communist effective reach as the People's Republic of Kampuchea until 1993. After years of disconnection, the war-desolated country was reunited under the government in 1993 and has perceived quick advance in the budgetary and human asset zones while reconstructing from decades of civil war. Cambodia has had one of the best investment records in Asia, with financial development averaging 6 percent for the final 10 years. Solid textiles, farming, development, articles of clothing, and tourism areas prompted nonnative contributions and universal trade.[10] In 2005, oil and regular gas stores were discovered underneath Cambodia's regional waters, and once business extraction starts in 2013, the oil incomes might significantly influence Cambodia's economy.


Cambodia has a territory of 181,035 square kilometers (69,898 sq mi) and lies actually inside the tropics, between scopes 10° and 15°N, and longitudes 102° and 108°E. It outskirts Thailand to the north and west, Laos to the northeast, and Vietnam to the east and southeast. It has a 443-kilometer (275 mi) coastline along the Gulf of Thailand.

Cambodia's view is portrayed by a flat-lying midway plain that is encompassed via uplands and level mountains and incorporates the Tonle Sap (Great Lake) and the upper achieves of the Mekong River delta. Broadening outward from this mid region are transitional fields, daintily forested and climbing to heights of around 650 feet (200 meters) above ocean level. To the north the Cambodian plain adjoins a sandstone slope, which structures a southward-challenging precipice extending more than 200 miles (320 km) from west to east and climbing suddenly above the plain to statures of 600 to 1,800 feet (180 to 550 meters). This bluff imprints the southern cutoff of the Dângrêk Mountains.

Streaming south with the country's eastern regions is the Mekong River. East of the Mekong the transitional fields progressively fuse with the eastern high countries, a region of forested mountains and towering levels that reach out into Laos and Vietnam. In southwestern Cambodia two dissimilar upland hinders, the Krâvanh Mountains and the Dâmrei Mountains, structure a different good country region that blankets a significant part of the area range between the Tonle Sap and the Gulf of Thailand. In this remote and impressively uninhabited region, Phnom Aural, Cambodia's most astounding crest, ascents to a rise of 5,949 feet (1,813 meters). The southern seaside region bordering the Gulf of Thailand is a thin swamp strip, greatly wooded and inadequately populated, which is detached from the mid plain by the southwestern high countries.

The most dissimilar land quality is the immersions of the Tonle Sap (Great Lake), measuring in regards to 2,590 square kilometers (1,000 sq mi) throughout the dry period and extending to around 24,605 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi) throughout the blustery period. This thickly populated plain, which is committed to wet rice development, is the heartland of Cambodia. Much of this range has been designated as a biosphere store. 


Cambodia's climate, such as that of the final part of Southeast Asia, is overwhelmed by rainstorm, which are regarded as tropical wet and dry as a result of the uniquely stamped seasonal contrasts.

Cambodia has a temperature run from 21 to 35 °C (69.8 to 95 °F) and encounters tropical storms. Southwest storms blow inland carrying dampness-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast storm ushers in the dry period, which keeps up from November to March. The country encounters the heaviest precipitation from September to October with the driest period happening from January to February.

Cambodia has two dissimilar seasons. The stormy time of year, which runs from May to October, can see temperatures drop to 22 °C (71.6 °F) and is ordinarily went with elevated stickiness. The dry season keeps going from November to April when temperatures can ascend to 40 °C (104 °F) around April. Unfortunate flooding happened in 2001 and again in 2002, with some level of flooding practically each year. 



Cambodia has a wide assortment of plants and animals. There are 212 vertebrate species, 536 bird species, 240 reptile species, 850 freshwater fish species (Tonle Sap Lake zone), and 435 marine fish species. Much of this biodiversity is held around the Tonle Sap Lake and the encompassing biosphere.[73] The Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve is an one of a kind environmental wonder encompassing the Tonle Sap. It incorporates the bay and nine territories: Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Battambang, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang, Banteay Meanchey, Pailin, Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. In 1997, it was truly designated as an UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.[74] Other crux natural surroundings incorporate the dry woodland of Mondolkiri and Ratanakiri areas and the Cardamom Mountains ecosystem, incorporating Bokor National Park, Botum-Sakor National Park, and the Phnom Aural and Phnom Samkos untamed life asylums.

The Worldwide Fund for Nature distinguishes six unique physical ecoregions in Cambodia – the Cardamom Mountains downpour timberland, Central Indochina dry woods, Southeast Indochina dry evergreen backwoods, Southern Annamites montane drizzle backwoods, Tonle Sap freshwater marsh woods, and Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forest.[75]

The rate of deforestation in Cambodia is one of the most astounding in the planet. Cambodia's essential timberland blanket tumbled from over 70% in 1969 to simply 3.1% in 2007. In sum, Cambodia lost 25,000 square kilometres (9,700 sq mi) of woodland between 1990 and 2005—3,340 km2 (1,290 sq mi) of which was essential woods. Since 2007, less than 3,220 km2 (1,243 sq mi) of essential woods stay with the come about that the destiny satisfactoriness of the woods reserves of Cambodia is under severe risk, with unlawful lumberjacks looking to create revenue.[76] 


The tourism industry is the nation's second-most fantastic origin of hard money after the textile industry. Between January and December 2007, guest entries were 2.0 million, an increment of 18.5% over the same period in 2006. Most guests (51%) landed with Siem Reap with the leftover (49%) by way of Phnom Penh and other destinations. Other visitor objectives incorporate Sihanoukville in the south west which has numerous mainstream vacation spot resorts and the range around Kampot and Kep incorporating the Bokor Hill Station. Tourism has expanded consistently every year in the comparatively stable period since the 1993 UNTAC races; in 1993 there were 118,183 global vacationers, and in 2009 there were 2,161,577 global tourists.

A large portion of the visitors were Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Americans, South Koreans and French individuals, stated the report, including that the industry earned some 1.4 billion U.S. dollars in 2007, explaining well-nigh ten percent of the kingdom's gross national items. Chinese-dialect daily paper Jianhua Daily cited industry official as expression that Cambodia will have several million strange visitor entries in 2010 and five million in 2015. Tourism has been one of Cambodia's triple column commercial ventures. The Angkor Wat academic stop in Siem Reap territory, the shores in Sihanoukville and the capital city Phnom Penh are the essential magnetisms for outside tourists.

Visitor keepsake industry utilizes a considerable measure of individuals around the principle spots of investment. Evidently, the amount of keepsakes that are generated is not sufficient to face the expanding number of sightseers and a greater part of features sold to the travelers on the businesses are foreign from China, Thailand and Vietnam. Some of the mainly processed gifts incorporate:
  • Krama (universal scarf)
  • Ceramic works
  • Cleanser, flame, flavors
  • Wood cutting, lacquerware, silverplating
    Painted flasks holding implanted rice wine


As of 2010, Cambodia has an expected population of 14,805,358 individuals. Ninety percent of Cambodia's population is of Khmer inception and talk the Khmer dialect, the nation's official dialect. Cambodia's population is proportionally homogeneous. Its minority bunches incorporate Vietnamese (740,268 est.), Chinese (700,000 est.), Cham (220,000 est.), and Khmer Loeu (550,000 est.). The nation's conception rate is 25.4 for every 1,000. Its population development rate is 1.70%, fundamentally higher than those of Thailand, South Korea, and India.

The Khmer dialect is a part of the Mon–Khmer subfamily of the Austroasiatic dialect bunch. French, once the dialect of legislature in Indochina, is still talked by numerous more senior Cambodians. French is moreover the dialect of guideline in certain schools and colleges that are subsidized by the administration of France. Cambodian French, a remainder of the nation's frontier past, is a tongue recognized in Cambodia and is here and there utilized as a part of legislature, especially in court.

In later decades, numerous younger Cambodians and those in the business-class have favoured picking up English. In the major urban areas and traveler focuses, English is considerably vocalized and showed at a substantial number of schools in light of the overpowering number of travelers from English-articulating nations. Yet in the most rustic stations, most junior individuals articulate in any event some English, as it is frequently showed by ministers at the nearby pagodas where numerous youngsters are learned.

The common war and its result have uniquely influenced the Cambodian population; 50% of the population is younger than 22 years old. At a 1.04 female to male degree, Cambodia has the most female-predispositioned sex degree in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In the Cambodian population over 65, the female to male proportion is 1.6:1.


Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Cambodia, which is rehearsed by more than 95 percent of the people. The Theravada Buddhist custom is boundless and solid in all areas, with an expected 4,392 cloister temples all through the country. The immeasurable greater part of ethnic Khmers are Buddhist, and there are close affiliations between Buddhism, social conventions, and every day essence. Adherence to Buddhism usually is thought about inalienable to the nation's ethnic and customary personality. Religion in Cambodia, incorporating Buddhism, was smothered by the Khmer Rouge throughout the late 1970s however has since encountered a recovery.

Islam is the religion of the dominant part of the Chams and Malay minorities in Cambodia. The greater part of Muslims are Sunnis of the Shafi'i school and are profoundly populated in Kampong Cham Province. Right now there are more than 300,000 Muslims in the nation.

One percent of Cambodians are recognized as being Christian, of which Catholics make up the greatest gathering accompanied by Protestants. There are as of now 20,000 Catholics in Cambodia, which speaks for 0.15% of the aggregate residents. Different sections incorporate Baptists, The Christian and Missionary Alliance, Methodists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Apostolic or United Pentecostals, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Mahayana Buddhism is the religion of the larger part of Chinese and Vietnamese in Cambodia. Components of different religious practices, for example the reverence of people heroes and progenitors, Confucianism, and Taoism intermingle with Chinese Buddhism are moreover drilled. 


The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is answerable for securing national arrangements and guidelines for education in Cambodia. The Cambodian education framework is considerably decentralised, with several levels of administration, centermost, common and region – answerable for its administration. The constitution of Cambodia declares unlimited obligatory education for nine years, ensuring the all inclusive right to essential value education.

In 2004 it was assessed that 73.6% of the residents was educated (84.7% of guys and 64.1% of females). Male adolescent age (15–24 years) have a proficiency rate of 89% contrasted with 86% for females.

The education framework in Cambodia presses on to face numerous tests, yet throughout the past years there have been noteworthy enhancements, particularly regarding essential net enlistment adds on, the presentation of system based-planning, and the improvement of an arrangement system which encourages impeded youngsters to addition access to education. Many of Cambodia's above all acclaimed colleges are based in Phnom Penh.

Generally, education in Cambodia was offered by the wats (Buddhist temples), hence furnishing education only for the male population. During the Khmer Rouge administration, education endured huge setbacks. 

Miss Cambodia 2012:


Burma - The Golden Land

Location of  Burma  (green)in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Burma, otherwise called Myanmar is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia outskirted by China, Thailand, India, Laos and Bangladesh. One-third of Burma's sum border of 1,930 kilometres (1,200 mi) shapes an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Its inhabitants present of over 60 million makes it the planet's 24th most crowded country and, at 676,578 km2 (261,227 sq mi), it is the planet's 40th greatest nation and the second greatest in Southeast Asia.

The nation has been under military control since an overthrow in 1962. Throughout this time, the United Nations and numerous different conglomerations have reported predictable and efficient human rights violations in the nation, incorporating genocide, the utilization of tyke officers, efficient assault, tyke labour, servitude, human trafficking and an absence of license of discourse. Since the military started giving up a greater amount of its control over the administration, in any case – coupled with its discharge in 2011 of Burma's most unmistakable human rights activist, Aung San Suu Kyi – the nation's remote associations have upgraded quickly, particularly with major powers for example the United States, Japan and the European Union. Exchange and different endorses, for instance, infringed on Burma/Myanmar by the United States and the European Union, have now been eased.

Burma is a nation rich in valuable stones, oil, common gas and other mineral assets. In 2011, its GDP stood at US$82.7 billion and was assessed as developing at a yearly rate of 5.5%.


Since 1992, the legislature has heartened tourism in the nation. On the other hand, as of July 2006, fewer than 750,000 travelers dropped in the nation annually. Burma's Minister of Hotels and Tourism Saw Lwin has stated that the legislature appropriates a noteworthy rate of the wages of private part tourism services. Much of the nation is fully untouchable to travelers, and the military extremely tightly controls face to face times between outsiders and the individuals of Burma, especially the outskirt regions. They are not to weigh in on legislative issues with nonnatives, under retribution of detainment, and in 2001, the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board issued a request for nearby authorities to ensure sightseers and limit "unnecessary contact" between outsiders and conventional Burmese people.


Burma has an inhabitant total of around 56 million. Population figures are unpleasant appraisals since the final incomplete statistics, directed by the Ministry of Home and Religious Affairs under the control of the military junta, was taken in 1983. No trustworthy across the country registration has been taken in Burma since 1931. There are over 600,000 enlisted transient specialists from Burma in Thailand, and millions more work wrongfully. Burmese vagrant laborers explain 80% of Thailand's transient workers. Burma has a people thickness of 75 for every square kilometre (190 /sq mi), one of the most reduced in Southeast Asia. Displaced person camps exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai fringes while a few thousand are in Malaysia. Progressive appraisals state that there are over 295,800 displaced people from Burma, with the greater part being Karenni, and Kayin and are mainly found along the Thai-Burma border. There are nine perpetual evacuee camps along the Thai-Burma outskirt, a large portion of which were secured in the mid-1980s. The evacuee camps are under the consideration of the Thai-Burma Border Consortium (TBBC). Since 2006, over 55,000 Burmese exiles have been resettled in the United States.

There are over 53.42 million Buddhists, over 2.98 million Christians, over 2.27 million Muslims, over 0.3 million Hindus and over 0.79 million of the aforementioned who have faith in different religions in the nation, consistent with a reply by Union Minister at Myanmar Parliament on 8 September 2011.

Ne Win's ascent to power in 1962 and his tireless abuse of "inhabitant outsiders" (settler gatherings not recognised as residents of the Union of Burma) accelerated an exodus/expulsion of about 300,000 Burmese Indians. They relocated to break racial segregation and wholesale nationalisation of private venture a couple years later in 1964. The Anglo-Burmese during that timeframe either fled the nation or modified their names and mixed in with the broader Burmese publicly accepted norms.

Numerous Rohingya Muslims fled Burma and numerous exiles immersed neighbouring Bangladesh incorporating 200,000 in 1978 thus of the King Dragon operation in Arakan and 250,000 in 1991.


Burmese, the native language of the Bamar and official dialect of Burma, is identified with Tibetan and to the Chinese languages. It is composed in a script comprising of roundabout and semi-roundabout letters, which were adjusts from the Mon script, which in turn was advanced from a southern Indian script in the 8th century. The soonest known engravings in the Burmese script date from the 11th century. It is likewise used to compose Pali, the holy dialect of Theravada Buddhism, and a few ethnic minority dialects, incorporating Shan, numerous Karen lingos, and Kayah (Karenni), with the augmentation of specialised elements and diacritics for every language. The Burmese dialect consolidates prevailing utilization of honorifics and is age-oriented. Burmese publicly accepted norms has customarily focused on the imperativeness of instruction. In villages, common educating frequently occurs in religious communities. Auxiliary and tertiary instruction happen at legislature schools.


Numerous religions are practised in Burma. Religious structures and requests have been in being for numerous years. Celebrations might be kept on a fabulous scale. The Christian and Muslim inhabitant totals do, be that as it may, challenge religious abuse and it is hard, if not unrealistic, for non-Buddhists to unite the armed force or get legislature vocations, the fundamental track to victory in the country. Such mistreatment and focusing on of citizens is absolutely striking in Eastern Burma, where over 3000 villages have been crushed in the past ten years. More than 200,000 Rohingya Muslims have settled in Bangladesh, to break mistreatment, over the past 20 years.

89% of the inhabitant total grips Buddhism (basically Theravāda). Different religions are honed substantially without block, with the striking exemption of some ethnic minorities for example the Muslim Rohingya individuals, who have pressed on to have their citizenship status denied and treated as wrongful workers instead, and Christians in Chin State. 4% of the people practices Islam; 4% Christianity; 1% conventional animistic trusts; and 2% take after different religions, incorporating Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism, East Asian religions and the Bahá'í Faith. However, as per an U.S. State Department's 2010 universal religious flexibility report, official statistics are charged to underestimate the non-Buddhist people. Autonomous specialists put the Muslim people at 6 to 10% of the inhabitant total. A small Jewish neighborhood in Rangoon had a synagogue however no occupant rabbi to direct services.

Granted that Hinduism is in no time just polished by 1% of the inhabitant total, it was a major religion in Burma's past. Numerous strains of Hinduism existed close by both Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism in the Pyu period in the first thousand years CE, and down to the Pagan period (9th to 13th centuries) when "Saivite and Vaishana components got a charge out of more terrific upper class impact than they might later do."


Burma, which has an aggregate range of 678,500 square kilometres (262,000 sq mi), is the greatest nation in terrain Southeast Asia, and the 40th-greatest in the planet. It lies between scopes 9° and 29°N, and longitudes 92° and 102°E. As of February 2011, Burma comprised of 14 states and locales, 67 regions, 330 townships, 64 sub‐townships, 377 towns, 2914 Wards, 14220 village tracts and 68290 villages.

It is verged on the northwest by the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh and the Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh states of India. Its north and northeast fringe straddles the Tibet and Yunnan locales of China for a Sino-Burman fringe aggregate of 2,185 kilometres (1,358 mi). It is limited by Laos and Thailand to the southeast. Burma has 1,930 kilometres (1,200 mi) of bordering coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the southwest and the south, which shapes one quarter of its sum perimeter.

In the north, the Hengduan Shan mountains shape the fringe with China. Hkakabo Razi, spotted in Kachin State, at a rise of 5,881 metres (19,295 ft), is the most elevated focus in Burma. Many mountain extends, for example the Rakhine Yoma, the Bago Yoma, the Shan Hills and the Tenasserim Hills exist inside Burma, all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas. The mountain chains partition Burma's several waterway frameworks, which are the Irrawaddy, Salween (Thanlwin), and the Sittaung rivers. The Irrawaddy River, Burma's longest waterway, almost 2,170 kilometres (1,348 mi) long, streams into the Gulf of Martaban. Fruitful fields exist in the valleys between the mountain chains. The larger piece of the pie of Burma's inhabitants present exists in the Irrawaddy valley, which is arranged between the Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau.

A clickable map of Burma/Myanmar exhibiting its first-level administrative divisions.

A great part of the nation untruths between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the rainstorm locale of Asia, with its seaside districts appropriating over 5,000 mm (196.9 in) of downpour every twelve-months. Yearly precipitation in the delta locale is roughly 2,500 mm (98.4 in), while normal twelve-month precipitation in the Dry Zone, which is spotted in mid Burma, is less than 1,000 mm (39.4 in). Northern locales of the nation are the coolest, with normal temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F). Seaside and delta areas have a normal most extreme temperature of 32 °C (89.6 °F).

The nation's moderate investment development has committed to the conservation of much of its surroundings and biological systems. Backwoods, incorporating thick tropical development and important teak in flatter Burma, blanket over 49% of the nation, incorporating ranges of acacia, bamboo, ironwood and michelia champaca. Coconut and betel palm and elastic have been presented. In the good countries of the north, oak, pine and different rhododendrons spread a great part of the land. Heavy logging since the new 1995 ranger service law went live has truly decreased timberland grounds and untamed life habitat. The terrains along the coast backing all mixed bags of tropical products of the soil had huge regions of mangroves admitting that a great part of the defensive mangroves have vanished. In much of centermost Burma (the Dry Zone), vegetation is meager and stunted.

Run of the mill bush creatures, absolutely tigers and panthers, happen scantily in Burma. In upper Burma, there are rhinoceros, wild bison, wild hogs, deer, gazelle, and elephants, which are additionally tamed or reared in imprisonment for utilization as work creatures, absolutely in the wood industry. More diminutive warm blooded animals are in addition various, going from gibbons and monkeys to flying foxes and tapirs. The truckload of winged creatures is eminent with over 800 species, incorporating parrots, peafowl, birds, crows, herons, and paddybirds. Around reptile species there are crocodiles, geckos, cobras, Burmese pythons, and turtles. Countless species of freshwater fish are boundless, copious and are extremely critical nourishment sources.

The instructive arrangement of Burma is worked by the legislature channel, the Ministry of Education. Schools and expert establishments from upper Burma and easier Burma are controlled by two divide elements, the Department of Higher Education of Upper Burma and the Department of Higher Education of Lower Burma. Base camp are based in Yangon and Mandalay individually. The instruction framework is dependent upon the United Kingdom's framework, because of practically a century of British and Christian presences in Burma. Almost all schools are legislature-worked, yet there has been a later increment in secretly subsidized English dialect schools. Educating is necessary until the finish of basic school, most likely around 9 years old, while the obligatory educating age is 15 or 16 at universal level.

There are 101 schools, 12 foundations, 9 degree universities and 24 universities in Burma, what added up to 146 higher training institutions.

There are 10 Technical Training Schools, 23 nurturing developing schools, 1 game institute and 20 midwifery schools.

There are 2047 Basic Education High Schools, 2605 Basic Education Middle Schools, 29944 Basic Education Primary Schools and 5952 Post Primary Schools. 1692 interactive media classrooms exist inside this framework.

There are four universal schools which are recognized by WASC and College Board – The International School Yangon (ISY), Crane International School Yangon (CISM), Yangon International School (YIS) and International School of Myanmar (ISM) in Yangon.  
Miss Burma 2012:   


Blogger news



Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...