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Cambodia - Land of Smiles

Location of  Cambodia  (green)in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Cambodia, formally regarded as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country found in the southern segment of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Its complete landmass is 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 sq mi), flanked via Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.

With a citizenry of over 14.8 million, Cambodia is the 68th most crowded country in the planet. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is honed by pretty nearly 95% of the Cambodian citizenry. The country's minority bunches incorporate Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams and 30 mound tribes. The capital and greatest city is Phnom Penh, the political, budgetary, and customary focus of Cambodia. The kingdom is a legal government with Norodom Sihamoni, a ruler decided on by the Royal Throne Council, as head of state. The head of legislature is Hun Sen, who is right now the longest serving guide in South East Asia and has governed Cambodia for over 25 years.

Cambodia's antiquated name is "Kambuja" (Sanskrit: कंबुज).[9] In 802 AD, Jayavarman II maintained himself ruler checking the starting of the Khmer Empire which thrived for over 600 years and permitting successive lords to rule much of Southeast Asia and collect tremendous power and fortune. The Indianized kingdom constructed momentous temples for example Angkor Wat and expedited the spread of first Hinduism, then Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia. After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, Cambodia was controlled as a vassal between its neighbors until it was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century. Cambodia added on freedom in 1953.

The Vietnam War developed into Cambodia, giving ascent to the Khmer Rouge, which took Phnom Penh in 1975. Cambodia reemerged numerous years later inside a communist effective reach as the People's Republic of Kampuchea until 1993. After years of disconnection, the war-desolated country was reunited under the government in 1993 and has perceived quick advance in the budgetary and human asset zones while reconstructing from decades of civil war. Cambodia has had one of the best investment records in Asia, with financial development averaging 6 percent for the final 10 years. Solid textiles, farming, development, articles of clothing, and tourism areas prompted nonnative contributions and universal trade.[10] In 2005, oil and regular gas stores were discovered underneath Cambodia's regional waters, and once business extraction starts in 2013, the oil incomes might significantly influence Cambodia's economy.

Geography

Cambodia has a territory of 181,035 square kilometers (69,898 sq mi) and lies actually inside the tropics, between scopes 10° and 15°N, and longitudes 102° and 108°E. It outskirts Thailand to the north and west, Laos to the northeast, and Vietnam to the east and southeast. It has a 443-kilometer (275 mi) coastline along the Gulf of Thailand.

Cambodia's view is portrayed by a flat-lying midway plain that is encompassed via uplands and level mountains and incorporates the Tonle Sap (Great Lake) and the upper achieves of the Mekong River delta. Broadening outward from this mid region are transitional fields, daintily forested and climbing to heights of around 650 feet (200 meters) above ocean level. To the north the Cambodian plain adjoins a sandstone slope, which structures a southward-challenging precipice extending more than 200 miles (320 km) from west to east and climbing suddenly above the plain to statures of 600 to 1,800 feet (180 to 550 meters). This bluff imprints the southern cutoff of the Dângrêk Mountains.

Streaming south with the country's eastern regions is the Mekong River. East of the Mekong the transitional fields progressively fuse with the eastern high countries, a region of forested mountains and towering levels that reach out into Laos and Vietnam. In southwestern Cambodia two dissimilar upland hinders, the Krâvanh Mountains and the Dâmrei Mountains, structure a different good country region that blankets a significant part of the area range between the Tonle Sap and the Gulf of Thailand. In this remote and impressively uninhabited region, Phnom Aural, Cambodia's most astounding crest, ascents to a rise of 5,949 feet (1,813 meters). The southern seaside region bordering the Gulf of Thailand is a thin swamp strip, greatly wooded and inadequately populated, which is detached from the mid plain by the southwestern high countries.

The most dissimilar land quality is the immersions of the Tonle Sap (Great Lake), measuring in regards to 2,590 square kilometers (1,000 sq mi) throughout the dry period and extending to around 24,605 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi) throughout the blustery period. This thickly populated plain, which is committed to wet rice development, is the heartland of Cambodia. Much of this range has been designated as a biosphere store. 


Climate 


Cambodia's climate, such as that of the final part of Southeast Asia, is overwhelmed by rainstorm, which are regarded as tropical wet and dry as a result of the uniquely stamped seasonal contrasts.

Cambodia has a temperature run from 21 to 35 °C (69.8 to 95 °F) and encounters tropical storms. Southwest storms blow inland carrying dampness-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast storm ushers in the dry period, which keeps up from November to March. The country encounters the heaviest precipitation from September to October with the driest period happening from January to February.

Cambodia has two dissimilar seasons. The stormy time of year, which runs from May to October, can see temperatures drop to 22 °C (71.6 °F) and is ordinarily went with elevated stickiness. The dry season keeps going from November to April when temperatures can ascend to 40 °C (104 °F) around April. Unfortunate flooding happened in 2001 and again in 2002, with some level of flooding practically each year. 


Ecology

 

Cambodia has a wide assortment of plants and animals. There are 212 vertebrate species, 536 bird species, 240 reptile species, 850 freshwater fish species (Tonle Sap Lake zone), and 435 marine fish species. Much of this biodiversity is held around the Tonle Sap Lake and the encompassing biosphere.[73] The Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve is an one of a kind environmental wonder encompassing the Tonle Sap. It incorporates the bay and nine territories: Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Battambang, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang, Banteay Meanchey, Pailin, Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. In 1997, it was truly designated as an UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.[74] Other crux natural surroundings incorporate the dry woodland of Mondolkiri and Ratanakiri areas and the Cardamom Mountains ecosystem, incorporating Bokor National Park, Botum-Sakor National Park, and the Phnom Aural and Phnom Samkos untamed life asylums.

The Worldwide Fund for Nature distinguishes six unique physical ecoregions in Cambodia – the Cardamom Mountains downpour timberland, Central Indochina dry woods, Southeast Indochina dry evergreen backwoods, Southern Annamites montane drizzle backwoods, Tonle Sap freshwater marsh woods, and Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forest.[75]

The rate of deforestation in Cambodia is one of the most astounding in the planet. Cambodia's essential timberland blanket tumbled from over 70% in 1969 to simply 3.1% in 2007. In sum, Cambodia lost 25,000 square kilometres (9,700 sq mi) of woodland between 1990 and 2005—3,340 km2 (1,290 sq mi) of which was essential woods. Since 2007, less than 3,220 km2 (1,243 sq mi) of essential woods stay with the come about that the destiny satisfactoriness of the woods reserves of Cambodia is under severe risk, with unlawful lumberjacks looking to create revenue.[76] 


Tourism


The tourism industry is the nation's second-most fantastic origin of hard money after the textile industry. Between January and December 2007, guest entries were 2.0 million, an increment of 18.5% over the same period in 2006. Most guests (51%) landed with Siem Reap with the leftover (49%) by way of Phnom Penh and other destinations. Other visitor objectives incorporate Sihanoukville in the south west which has numerous mainstream vacation spot resorts and the range around Kampot and Kep incorporating the Bokor Hill Station. Tourism has expanded consistently every year in the comparatively stable period since the 1993 UNTAC races; in 1993 there were 118,183 global vacationers, and in 2009 there were 2,161,577 global tourists.

A large portion of the visitors were Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Americans, South Koreans and French individuals, stated the report, including that the industry earned some 1.4 billion U.S. dollars in 2007, explaining well-nigh ten percent of the kingdom's gross national items. Chinese-dialect daily paper Jianhua Daily cited industry official as expression that Cambodia will have several million strange visitor entries in 2010 and five million in 2015. Tourism has been one of Cambodia's triple column commercial ventures. The Angkor Wat academic stop in Siem Reap territory, the shores in Sihanoukville and the capital city Phnom Penh are the essential magnetisms for outside tourists.

Visitor keepsake industry utilizes a considerable measure of individuals around the principle spots of investment. Evidently, the amount of keepsakes that are generated is not sufficient to face the expanding number of sightseers and a greater part of features sold to the travelers on the businesses are foreign from China, Thailand and Vietnam. Some of the mainly processed gifts incorporate:
  • Krama (universal scarf)
  • Ceramic works
  • Cleanser, flame, flavors
  • Wood cutting, lacquerware, silverplating
    Painted flasks holding implanted rice wine

Demographics

As of 2010, Cambodia has an expected population of 14,805,358 individuals. Ninety percent of Cambodia's population is of Khmer inception and talk the Khmer dialect, the nation's official dialect. Cambodia's population is proportionally homogeneous. Its minority bunches incorporate Vietnamese (740,268 est.), Chinese (700,000 est.), Cham (220,000 est.), and Khmer Loeu (550,000 est.). The nation's conception rate is 25.4 for every 1,000. Its population development rate is 1.70%, fundamentally higher than those of Thailand, South Korea, and India.

The Khmer dialect is a part of the Mon–Khmer subfamily of the Austroasiatic dialect bunch. French, once the dialect of legislature in Indochina, is still talked by numerous more senior Cambodians. French is moreover the dialect of guideline in certain schools and colleges that are subsidized by the administration of France. Cambodian French, a remainder of the nation's frontier past, is a tongue recognized in Cambodia and is here and there utilized as a part of legislature, especially in court.

In later decades, numerous younger Cambodians and those in the business-class have favoured picking up English. In the major urban areas and traveler focuses, English is considerably vocalized and showed at a substantial number of schools in light of the overpowering number of travelers from English-articulating nations. Yet in the most rustic stations, most junior individuals articulate in any event some English, as it is frequently showed by ministers at the nearby pagodas where numerous youngsters are learned.

The common war and its result have uniquely influenced the Cambodian population; 50% of the population is younger than 22 years old. At a 1.04 female to male degree, Cambodia has the most female-predispositioned sex degree in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In the Cambodian population over 65, the female to male proportion is 1.6:1.

Religion


Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Cambodia, which is rehearsed by more than 95 percent of the people. The Theravada Buddhist custom is boundless and solid in all areas, with an expected 4,392 cloister temples all through the country. The immeasurable greater part of ethnic Khmers are Buddhist, and there are close affiliations between Buddhism, social conventions, and every day essence. Adherence to Buddhism usually is thought about inalienable to the nation's ethnic and customary personality. Religion in Cambodia, incorporating Buddhism, was smothered by the Khmer Rouge throughout the late 1970s however has since encountered a recovery.

Islam is the religion of the dominant part of the Chams and Malay minorities in Cambodia. The greater part of Muslims are Sunnis of the Shafi'i school and are profoundly populated in Kampong Cham Province. Right now there are more than 300,000 Muslims in the nation.

One percent of Cambodians are recognized as being Christian, of which Catholics make up the greatest gathering accompanied by Protestants. There are as of now 20,000 Catholics in Cambodia, which speaks for 0.15% of the aggregate residents. Different sections incorporate Baptists, The Christian and Missionary Alliance, Methodists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Apostolic or United Pentecostals, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Mahayana Buddhism is the religion of the larger part of Chinese and Vietnamese in Cambodia. Components of different religious practices, for example the reverence of people heroes and progenitors, Confucianism, and Taoism intermingle with Chinese Buddhism are moreover drilled. 


Education

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is answerable for securing national arrangements and guidelines for education in Cambodia. The Cambodian education framework is considerably decentralised, with several levels of administration, centermost, common and region – answerable for its administration. The constitution of Cambodia declares unlimited obligatory education for nine years, ensuring the all inclusive right to essential value education.

In 2004 it was assessed that 73.6% of the residents was educated (84.7% of guys and 64.1% of females). Male adolescent age (15–24 years) have a proficiency rate of 89% contrasted with 86% for females.

The education framework in Cambodia presses on to face numerous tests, yet throughout the past years there have been noteworthy enhancements, particularly regarding essential net enlistment adds on, the presentation of system based-planning, and the improvement of an arrangement system which encourages impeded youngsters to addition access to education. Many of Cambodia's above all acclaimed colleges are based in Phnom Penh.

Generally, education in Cambodia was offered by the wats (Buddhist temples), hence furnishing education only for the male population. During the Khmer Rouge administration, education endured huge setbacks. 

Miss Cambodia 2012:

 

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